With a population of about 40,000, Jefferson City is the perfect size! You can meet new people or run into someone you know on a daily basis. Jefferson City is located on the bluffs of the Missouri River. The economy remains very stable since we have the state government, some industry, farming and tourism. People will drive through Jefferson City, fall in love with the "quaintness" and rolling countryside, and then decide to move here. We have something for everyone!.